November Collection Update

I was slightly delayed in composing this, but a number of things have occurred in my collection. For starters, there was the golden orb-weaver exchange detailed in a previous post. Also, I received a large order from Bugs in Cyberspace in the middle of October. This order included three species of roaches, two millipede species, and a baby tarantula, which happens to be my very first one. I had been wanting to acquire some of the roaches in the genus Therea for quite a while, but I had not yet acquired any. This order included two species: the question mark roach (T. olegrandjeani) and the domino roach (T. petiveriana). The question marks require USDA permits to own, and I have the permits to receive and own this species. The domino roach was deregulated as part of a previously mentioned deregulation of roaches, and no USDA permits are needed to own this species. The individuals I received of this species were young nymphs and will take a while to mature, but the adults are beautiful.

The middle marking gives Therea olegrandjeani its common name as it somewhat resembles a question mark.
This adult female domino roach lays small oothecae (egg cases) that are about a centimeter long and differs from roach species that have live young.

The third species of roach from the order was the yellow morph of the Gyna lurida. This species was another one on the aforementioned list of deregulated “plant pests”, and I had read it was a decently easy one to rear. The nymphs are still small, and I have yet to see the adults in person. I have never even seen the normal coloration of this species, other than maybe a few dead specimens, so I am looking forward to watching this species develop.

The nymphs have a very intricate pattern.

Since I have not seen this species before, I do not have any pictures of the adults. The Bugs in Cyberspace YouTube channel was made by Peter Clausen, who sent the shipment, and here is his video showing both color morphs of this species.

My next species from this shipment was the Florida ivory millipede (Chicobolus spinigerus). I acquired a breeding pair, but unfortunately, a couple weeks after the shipment, one, I think it was the male, died. There are plenty of droppings, so the other one has been eating. I am hoping that I am correct that this one is a female as she could still lay fertile eggs and start a colony.

Here is the pair shortly after they arrived and I transferred them to their permanent tank.

The other millipede species I acquired is an Oregon-native: Tylobolus uncigerus. Since Peter Clausen lives in Oregon, he collects this species himself. I acquired five adults, and I hope to breed this species. I am experimenting with keeping this species at cooler temperatures. Since it comes from a cooler region, this species should do better with the cooler temperatures. My only problem experimenting with this has been that the chamber I designed to cool the millipede tank has been malfunctioning. It runs on a thermoelectric device called a Peltier cooler and is controlled by a 12-volt thermostat. The problems arise from the power supply. The power supplies I have used have some sort of safety mechanism that shuts off power when the thermostat tries to modulate the power. I hope that trying a general purpose adapter will just output a steady current and let the thermostat and Peltier cooler do what they are intended to do.

T. uncigerus are not that unique in coloration, but it is an elegant species.

My last acquisition from this shipment was a curly hair tarantula (Tliltocatl albopilosum). This species used to be in the more familiar Brachypelma genus, but it was recently reclassified. My little spider has been eating fairly well, and I have been using rice flour beetle larvae (Tribolium confusum) as feeders. The current enclosure I am using is an approximately 3 ounce, clear vial with coconut fiber substrate. I put an artificial leaf as a hide, yet the spider is quite audacious and just made a burrow against the side of the enclosure. I am looking forward to raising this little tarantula.

My little spider loves these tiny beetle larvae.

On November 8th, I was volunteering at a insectarium, and I was able to take home some extra larva from their Eleodes tank. They recently put a good substrate of mixed organic matter, and these beetles have been breeding out of control. I took a cup of larvae home, and put them in a ten-gallon fish tank filled with rearing substrate comprised of coco fiber, leaf litter, and some decaying organic matter. In addition, I have been adding ground fish pellets to the top of the substrate for protein. It has only be a couple weeks, but the larvae seem to be thriving.

Just a quick peek under a piece of wood in the insectarium’s tank reveals several larvae. There are hundreds more deeper in the substrate.
The larva would not cooperate for a photo and kept trying to burrow into my hand.

I mentioned the Abacion magnum millipedes in my last Collection Update, and I have learned quite a bit more about their nature since then. Talking to a renowned hobbyist, who owns the Invertebrate Dude blog, I learned that this species of millipede might be the Goliathus of millipedes. For those who do not get the reference, Goliathus grubs are carnivorous, whereas most of their relatives are detritivores. Regardless, the hobbyist forwarded the information from a millipede expert, who suspected this millipede species might require a higher protein diet. I am now feeding these millipedes with a fish pellet designed for carnivorous cichlids, and they are eagerly consuming the pellets. This suggests that higher protein may be what this species requires.

This species has minutely detailed ridges.
Within a couple hours of adding the pellets, the millipedes had munched considerable holes in them.

My next species is a common polydesmid in my area: Apheloria tigana. I want to breed this species in captivity as it has a beautiful contrasting colors of yellow and black. I am currently using my basic millipede substrate. I have heard some of the large polydesmids benefit from cooler temperatures, so once I fix the aforementioned glitches with the thermoelectric chamber, these millipedes will join the Tylobolus in the chamber. If I can get these to breed, then I am looking forward to having a large colony in a display tank.

My last find to describe is an unusual centipede. It appears to be in the order Geophilomorpha, but beyond that, I have not be able to narrow it down. If anyone recognizes it from the following photo, then let me know.

I am still working on some new pages and resources on my website. I will be updating my collection list with these new species. I am working on incorporating a guide to the USDA regulations into my website, but there is a reason that this does not really exist as it is hard to address all the complexities and exceptions in even a common taxon, such as Tettigoniidae. Eventually, I will finish this and publish it for people to use.

Fun with a Macro Lens

I recently decided to start photographing my pet insects using my macro lens to see if I could get some higher quality photos. I had originally been using my macro lens to get better photos of tiny insects for iNaturalist. Once I started using it on my pets, I realized how useful it was. Even photos of larger insects, such as giant cave roaches (Blaberus giganteus), were much improved with the macro lens. I also started taking photographs of all the different instars of my monarch (Danaus plexippus) caterpillars. For those who are unfamiliar with the term “instar,” an instar number is the number of times a larva has molted, counting hatching as the first molt. Therefore, the first instar is a newly hatched larva. The fourth instar is one that has hatched and then molted three times since.

Some of the best photos I have captured with my macro lens are of my spiders. For example, I managed to catch my pet brilliant jumping spider (Phidippus clarus) in impressive detail. The most impressive part of this lens, though, is the fact that it is just a simple clip-on phone lens. My iPhone pictures are so much improved by this lens that I must recommend the brand: LIEQI. I have their 15x macro, and it is incredibly useful, even for photos that would not seem to require a macro lens.

Birds of all Types

On the third weekend in May, I went with the Wake Audubon Society to a special property in the Uwharrie Mountains. This property consists of about 600 acres of restored prairie. The focus of the trip was birds and bird banding, but I only recognized about a quarter of the bird species we banded. By the end of the event, I had seen, and released, some incredibly beautiful native birds and deepened my appreciation for the vast variety of birds in North Carolina.

One of the birds I recognized: an American goldfinch (Spinus tristis)
Another species I was familiar with: white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus)
A species I did not know: common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)
The ornithologists in the group said this was a rare find: a northern waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis)
I have wanted to get a close look at this species for a while: indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea)

Now comes the inevitable report of the insect finds on this property. The best insects I found were huge American bird grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana). I found both males and females, and I am going to breed the ones I captured. I did this last year and it went well (my Phalaenopsis orchid would disagree as its leaves were their favorite snack). I also found a massive, carnivorous beetle that I think is a margined warrior beetle (Pasimachus marginatus). This beetle seems to relish Hikari cichlid pellets. They are 40% protein and only 4% fat. This high protein to fat ratio makes them ideal for feeding many types of carnivorous arthropods, although it only works if their feeding response is activated by smell rather than movement. There were some other insects that I collected for breeding but many more that I did not bother to collect.

American bird grasshoppers mating
A friendly question mark butterfly (Polygonia interrogationis)
According to question marks and common buckeyes (Junonia coenia), dead box turtle (Terrepene carolina) is delicious!
You cannot catch me in the net if I cling to the handle.

Carnivorous, Fast, and Very Green

While at the NC Zoo, I spotted an iridescent insect flying around. At first, I thought it was an orchid bee (tribe Euglossini) because it was such a vibrant green. After I followed it to where it landed just about a foot off the path, I saw what it was: a six-spotted tiger beetle (Cicindela sexguttata). I have been looking for these for a while as I want to try and breed them. They are such a beautiful color and would be amazing candidates for a living display tank. I seem to have gotten lucky as I think it is a female, and she may be gravid. (If any entomologists with expertise in Cicindela come across this post, then feel free to validate or refute my choice.)

The beetle’s enclosure has a substrate comprised of a coconut fiber/sand mixture that I hope is conducive to oviposition. I have read that it is best to collect soil from the habitat where you find a tiger beetle, but she was not near a typical tiger beetle habitat and was flying erratically. There was a thick layer of leaves as well, so I do not think she was trying to oviposit. What I have read is that their larvae thrive in sandy soil. There was no sand nearby.

This beetle loves being hand-fed baby roaches and rice flour beetle larvae. I use tongs to give them to her, and she will run up to the tongs and energetically grab the food off of them. Just like my mantids, she is easy to hand-feed. Also, her diet is nearly identical to the diet of a mantis nymph. I have been giving her a good amount of food for her body size, and she is very active. Hopefully that translates into lots of oviposition.

Cicindela sexguttata eating a rice flour beetle larva.

The larvae burrow and only stick their mandibles above ground to trap prey. They can take a couple years to mature and pupate. Unfortunately, the adults only live a few months at most. During their entire life cycle, they are carnivorous. Their diminutive size means I must find small prey to give them. As I mentioned in the preceding paragraph, I am feeding my beetle baby roaches and rice flour beetle larvae. I tried Hydei fruit flies (Drosophila hydei), but they have the opposite problem: they are a little too small for her. The Ultimate Guide to Breeding Beetles by Orin McMonigle says that young Cicindela larvae require springtails because they are so small. Hopefully, my springtail colonies cooperate with me as I have had issues before with the populations crashing (of course, they do fine until I need to use them).

My six-spotted tiger beetle is an amazing little beetle. She seems quite intelligent (for an arthropod), and I hope I get the chance to raise more of these beetles.

Rice Flour Beetles

Rice flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) are small beetles that are used as pet food. The tiny larvae make good snacks for small frogs, ground beetles (referring to carabids), baby mantids, and other animals that require unusually small prey. This beetle is called a “rice flour beetle,” which is a name it shares with other members of the genus Tribolium. The species name “confusum” refers to this species being “confused” on how to fly. In other words, these beetles are flightless. This is a good thing because other rice flour beetles, such as the red flour beetle (T. castaneum), can spread into bags of flour and become a pest. As long as the flightless ones are prevented from walking out of their cup with a lid, they cannot become a pest. The ability to become a pest also makes it an even better feeder because most pests have to breed fast. In order to feed a number of animals, it is good to have something that can breed fast enough to keep up with their appetites.

There seems to be an absence of recipes for nutritious rice flour beetle media. Here is a recipe that works well for me.

  • 1 cup Rice Flour
  • 1/2 cup Wheat Flour
  • 1/2 cup Wheat Bran
  • 1 teaspoon Nutritional Yeast

Mix the ingredients and add them to a culturing cup. Add rice flour beetles and let the culture sit in a dry place for a month or more. By that time, there should be hundreds of offspring in the media. Sift the substrate to harvest them to feed to other pets. The culture will last for a number of months, and rice flour beetles make a good backup feeder because their cultures last so long.